Unix Notes


Red text indicates a change or new stuff added.

I've put together these notes over the years in order to help me with Unix systems support. And yes, a small bit of searching will get the same information. Probably more information in a better format, now that I think of it.

Anyway, I hope this helps.

Disclaimer: Use at your own risk. If you see any problems with this stuff, please send an email explaining what I screwed up on: DBurton3@TampaBay.RR.Com.

Links: I have some links scattered throughout this page that will take you to other Unix related sites. I've also duplicated them (and maybe added some) at the bottom of this page.

Rosetta Stone for UNIX

Exceed Stuff

Reflection Stuff

Unix (HP) Stuff

Building an HP-UX 10.20 or 11.00 bastion host CDE stuff How to change the CDE login screen? How to change the CDE login screen "Welcome" message? How to change the CDE screen saver (locked screen) logo bitmap? How to change the CDE Login Greeting: Copyright (Blue) Screen Disable X-Client access (Exceed and Reflection can't connect) Host lookup issues How to boot to single user mode Ignite To wipe the drives Changes to sendmail.cf Lan cards Check Lan cards LVM Stuff Make a bootable mirror disk Add a mirror Remove a mirror and/or the mirror drive To extend a logical volume /etc/lvmtab file problems Volume Group problems Console settings for N and L servers IP to MAC address resolution (or who pings back on the subnet) Software Depot and SW install stuff Check core dumps Copy a set of printers from one server to another Convert a "nolargefiles" file system to a "largefiles" file system Mounting CDs PFS mount Kernel stuff Other Kernel stuff Check Kernel parameters Set the stinkin date 32 or 64 bit supported server .profile thang - put into /.profile and create link NTP stuff OmniBack stuff Recreate device files Setting/Resetting some system parameters Swap Find stuff Move (copying) /usr Backups Command line stuff NIS Stuff Errors and such Hitachi/Controler time out Get statistics and info Give root a REAL ksh shell at bootup Check /etc/passwd and /etc/group files Man page stuff

Unix (Sun) Stuff


PC Stuff

Links to other Unix sites

Rosetta Stone for UNIX:
Can't say enough about this site. Great cross reference of Unix commands.


Exceed Stuff - like Reflection

/usr/bin/X11/xterm -display @d &

   - to get an xterm only

open "xconfig -> communication"

  mode = xdmp-query

  press "configure" button, type in target hostname

  display class = HCLpcXserver


Reflection Stuff - like Exceed

In "Connection type" window:

  In "Description:" area...  XDMCP Direct to Host_IP

  In "Method:" area...       Direct

  In "Host name:" area...    Host_ip


"Host_IP" is the host IP address you want to connect too.


Unix (HP) Stuff

HP Support:       1-800-633-3600

Hp Contracts:     1-800-386-1115

HP ITRC:          http://us-support.external.hp.com/

   Look up the following document numbers in ITRC to find "L" and "N"

   server troubleshooting info:

     L-Class Server - HP document number: 26812dhtm

     N-Class Server - HP document number: 25559dhtm

HP Documentation: http://docs.hp.com/index.html

HP Security: ftp://ftp.itrc.hp.com/export/patches

HP Freeware:

  http://hpux.cs.utah.edu/, or

  http://hpux.connect.org.uk/, or



Building an HP-UX 10.20 or 11.00 bastion host

To build a pretty secure system...



CDE stuff

xmodmap -e "keycode 109=hpDeleteChar"

   - Map the "del" key

xmodmap -e "pointer = 123"

   - Change the mouse buttons.

what /usr/lib/Motif1.2/libXm.sl

   - Get motif version info

/usr/dt/bin/dtconfig -e

   - Enable CDE

/usr/dt/bin/dtconfig -d

   - Disable CDE

Send sound to another server/workstation:

  On target.com box as root...

    /usr/ausio/asecure -C

    enter the root password

    /usr/audio/bin/asecure +h source.com

  On source.com box...

    /usr/audio/bin/send_sound \

    /path/of/sound/file.au -server target.com

How to change the CDE login screen?

1. Obtain the application "XV" from this site:


     http://hpux.cs.utah.edu/, or

     http://hpux.connect.org.uk/, or



2. Use XV to convert your existing bitmap file to XPM format.

   Valid values for this resource can be any file which can be

   viewed in the CDE icon editor (dticon).  If the file is in either

   XMICONSEARCHPATH or XMBMICONSEARCHPATH, then only the filename is

   necessary.  If the file is not in one of those paths, then the

   full path should be specified.

3. Save file to: /etc/dt/appconfig/icons/C/LoginLogo.xpm

4. chmod   444   /etc/dt/appconfig/icons/C/LoginLogo.xpm

5. Add the following:

   Dtlogin*logo*bitmapFile: /etc/dt/appconfig/icons/C/LoginLogo.xpm

   Dtlogin*logo*height: 139   (68  for Exceed)

   Dtlogin*logo*width:  552   (276 for Exceed)

   to the /etc/dt/config/C/Xresources file.

How to change the CDE login screen "Welcome" message?

It can be set system-wide by adding these lines in the

/etc/dt/config/C/Xresources file:

   Dtlogin*greeting.labelString: Welcome to %LocalHost%\n

   Insert additional message here\n

   Final additional text


The \n's indicate places where newlines should appear in the greeting.

   Inserting %DisplayName% will display the X server

   display name if different from the login host.

Once the user name has been entered, the login server displays

the message Welcome username by default.  This greeting string can

be customized by changing the line:

    Dtlogin*greeting.persLabelString:   Welcome %s


The "%s" will be replaced with the username by the

system. So if you want to change the login to read

"login_name is a goof", you would make the change

look like "%s is a goof" instead of "Welcome %s".

How to change the CDE screen saver (locked screen) logo bitmap?

It can be set system-wide by adding this line:

   Dtsession*lockImageName: /etc/dt/appconfig/icons/C/LoginLogo.xpm

to the /etc/dt/config/C/sys.resources file.

Per-user changes can be made in $HOME/.Xdefaults.

An example would be:

    Dtsession*lockImageName: ~/bitmaps/YourLoginLogo.xpm

Also, you can change the width and height with the following

additional lines:

    Dtsession*lockImageName*height: 129

    Dtsession*lockImageName*width:  282

How to change the CDE Login Greeting: Copyright (Blue) Screen

Add this next line to the /etc/dt/config/Xconfig file:

   Dtlogin*environment: INFO_PATH=/etc/motd

Run this command to reload the configuration information:

   /usr/dt/bin/dtconfig -reset


Sometimes (don't know why) adding this stinkin file will make the

"new" login logo NOT show. If this is your problem do the


Change the default 'dthello' execution:

    To create and modify this new script, run:

        vi /etc/dt/config/Xsession.d/0091.dthello

    Add the following lines to this new script:


        dtstart_hello[0]="/usr/dt/bin/dthello -file /etc/motd &"

    Set the permissions:

        chmod 555 /etc/dt/config/Xsession.d/0091.dthello

Disable X-Client access (Exceed and Reflection can't connect)

Comment out the following lines in /usr/dt/config/Xaccess

*    # grant service to all remote displays

*    CHOOSER BROADCAST    #any indirect host can get a chooser


Host lookup issues

Trouble with host lookup using DNS and NIS?

Try adding this to the /etc/nsswitch.conf file

  hosts: dns [NOTFOUND=continue UNAVAIL=continue TRYAGAIN=continue] \

    files[NOTFOUND=return UNAVAIL=continue TRYAGAIN=return]

  hosts: nis [NOTFOUND=return UNAVAIL=continue] \

    files[NOTFOUND=return UNAVAIL=continue TRYAGAIN=return]


  The four lines above should be two lines. One for DNS and one for

  NIS. I typed it this way so it would fit on the sheet.


How to boot to single user mode

For 9000/700 series

   b p0 ipl

   isl>hpux -is boot disc(;0)/stand/vmunix

   isl>hpux -is boot disc(;0)/stand/vmunix.prev

      - Boot to previous kernel

For 9000/800 series

   sea ipl

   bo p? ipl

      - Where "?" is the p number given for the boot item you

        want to use.

   hpux -is (;0)/stand/vmunix

      - Or just "hpux -is"



isl> hpux (;0)/boot/install

   - Boot to an ignite server.

make_sys_image -d /tmp -v -s local

   - To make a system image for ignite and place it into /tmp.

make_recovery -vAC -d /dev/rmt/c?t?d?BEST

   - To make a recovery tape.


   The make_recovery tool will create a recovery tape for a

   system with mirrored disks but it will not preserve the

   mirrored disk configurations.


To wipe the drives

mediainit -v /dev/rdsk/c?t?d?   <-- We like this one........


Changes to sendmail.cf

In order to send mail to uppercase users ("USER" for example).

Add the "u" below:

From: Mlocal,P=/usr/bin/rmail, F=lsDFMAw5:/|@qm9,  S=10/30, R=20/40,

To:   Mlocal,P=/usr/bin/rmail, F=lsDFMAw5u:/|@qm9, S=10/30, R=20/40,


Lan cards

Use "lanscan" to get "NUM ID" to use on stuff below.

lanadmin -x         0 = lan info - speed half or full duplex

                                 - auto on or off

lanadmin -X 100HD   0 = turn lan0 to 100 speed half duplex auto on

lanadmin -X 100FD   0 = turn lan0 to 100 speed full duplex auto off

lanadmin -X AUTO_ON 0 = turn Auto Neg. on

If "ioscan -funC lan" shows "btlan" as the device driver for

the lan card, then modify the /etc/rc.config.d/hpbasetconf file

to read:

  HP_BASET_INTERFACE_NAME[0]=lan0 - the lan number

  HP_BASET_SPEED[0]=100FD         - the speed you want

Check Lan cards

linkloop -i 1 mac_address

   - Check loopback

lanscan -v

   - Verbose output

ifconfig lan0  (or lan1, or lan2)

   - Status of network interfaces

netstat -in

   - IP interfaces

/usr/sbin/fddistat /dev/lan0

   - Check the state of the FDDI card

/usr/sbin/fddinet /dev/lan0

   - Check the FDDI network neighbors

elstat -n ??? -v

   - Check the ATM card


"???" is the ATM card name gathered from the "netstat -i" command


LVM Stuff

Make a bootable mirror disk (primary=c0t6d0, alternate=c0t5d0)

pvcreate -B /dev/rdsk/c0t5d0

   - The -B option is used to create a bootable Physical Volume.

mkboot /dev/rdsk/c0t5d0

   - Make sure to use the character device file when using mkboot.

mkboot -b /usr/sbin/diag/lif/updatediaglif -p ISL -p AUTO /

          -p HPUX  -p LABEL /dev/rdsk/c0t5d0

   - Add Diag to lif.

mkboot -a "hpux -lq (;0)/stand/vmunix" /dev/rdsk/c0t5d0


   The "-lq" indicates no quorum when two disks are used.

   When three or more are used you don't need "-lq."

   You also need to do this with the primary disk. Otherwise,

   when you boot normally to pri and the alt disk is not there

   for whatever reason, you will **NOT** be able to boot. The

   pri disk will "look" for the alt disk. No quorum???? To bad

   so sad, you loose. Ack! So do this too:

   mkboot -a "hpux -lq (;0)/stand/vmunix" /dev/rdsk/c0t6d0

vgextend /dev/vg00 /dev/dsk/c0t5d0

   - Adds the Physical Volume to the root volume group.


Do this next command for each "lvol"[1-7]......

lvextend -m 1 /dev/vg00/lvol1 /dev/dsk/c0t5d0

    ******* or *******

for x in lvol1 lvol2 lvol3 lvol4 lvol5 lvol6 lvol7 swap2 Crash Logs


    echo "\n******** Doing ${x} ********\n"

    lvextend -m 1 /dev/vg00/${x} /dev/dsk/c0t5d0


Don't forget any extra swap you added (like /dev/vg00/swap2).

Do "swapinfo" and "bdf" to check for swap and any other lvols

that may have been created.


lvlnboot -r /dev/vg00/lvol3

   - Specifies the root logical volume.

lvlnboot -s /dev/vg00/lvol2

   - Specifies the swap logical volume.

lvlnboot -d /dev/vg00/lvol2

   - Specifies the dump logical volume.

lvlnboot -b /dev/vg00/lvol1

   - Specifies the boot logical volume. 

lvlnboot -R

   - Recovers any BDRA info.

lvlnboot -v

   - Verify boot, root, swap and dump settings.


   - Display the Primary and Alternate boot paths that are

     currently set.

setboot -a 10/0.5.0


   Change the Alternate Boot Path to the path of the Root Mirror.

   Use "ioscan -funC disk" to find out what the path should be.

   Run "setboot" again to confirm the change.

Do "shutdown -r 0" (or "reboot") to test. After halting the boot

process, type in "bo alt" to boot from the alternate disk. Also,

you may want to *remove* the primary disk to test as well. The

server should automagically boot from the alternate disk if the

primary is not found and no quorum was set.

Add a mirror

vgextend /dev/vg00 /dev/dsk/c?d?t?

   - Adds alternate links

lvextend -m 1 /dev/vgoo/lvol1 /dev/dsk/c?d?t?

Remove a mirror and/or the mirror drive

lvreduce -m 0 /dev/vg00/lvol1

   - Remove the mirror from a logical volume

vgreduce /dev/vg00 /dev/dsk/c?t?d?

   - Remove the disk from the volume group

To extend a logical volume (do in single user mode for var, tmp, etc.)

Unmount the target file system.

   lvextend -L 400 /dev/vg00/lvol3

      - Increase to 400 meg

   extendfs /dev/vg00/rlvol3

   mount -a

/etc/lvmtab file problems

Down ALL applications first, then:

  mv /etc/lvmtab /etc/lvmtab.old

     - Move out the old (bad?) lvmtab.

  vgscan -v -p

     - Check the lvmtab file.

  vgscan -a

     - Generate the lvmtab file.

  vgchange -a

     - Activate all volume groups.

  lvlnboot -R

     - Correct boot information on disk.

Volume Group problems

vgcfgrestore -n /dev/vg00 -o /dev/rdsk/c?t?d?

   - Restore LVM volume group configuration from backup file.

vgchange -a -y  /dev/vg00 /dev/rdsk/c?t?d?

   - Activates volume group.

vgsync /dev/vg00 /dev/rdsk/c?t?d?

   - Synchronize stale logical volume mirrors in LVM volume groups.

lvsync /dev/vg00/stuff

   - Synchronize stale mirrors in LVM logical volumes.


Console settings for N and L servers

Exit the session before making these changes to the terminal


Perform the following steps on a 700/96 terminal:

      1. Press the user/system key to get to the configuration


      2. Press f8 (config keys).

      3. Press f5 (terminal config).

      4. Tab to the Terminal Id field.

      5. Type VT100 in this field.

      6. Tab to the TermMode field.

      7. Press f2 (next choice), EM100 appears in the field.

      8. Press f1 (save config).

      9. Use the f8 (config keys) to go to the ansi config screen.

     10. Press f6 (ansi config).

     11. Tab to the backspace Def field.

     12. Press f2 (next choice).

     13. Verify the Backspace Def field now reads BackSpace/Del in

         the field.

     14. Tab to the EM100 ID field.

     15. Press f2 (next choice) to change the EM100 ID field to


     16. Press f1 (save config).

The terminal should now display EM100 below the softkeys.

This procedure enforced the following settings:

      * terminal id to vt100,

      * termmode to em100,

      * correctly mapped the backspace and delete keys

      * em100 id to EM100

The terminal is now ready to correctly operate in vt100 mode.


IP to MAC address resolution (or who pings back on the subnet)

ping XXX.XXX.XXX.255    example:(

arp -a

"? (120.1.1.XX) at bi:g_:ma:c_:ad:dr:es:s_  ether"  = DNS can't

  resolve IP to name. You may have a spook on the line.


Software Depot and SW install stuff

To install a patch:

   sh /tmp/Patch_Name.sh

      - Un-shar the file.

   swinstall -x autoreboot match_target=true -s /tmp/patch.depot


   - To add depots to an 11.00 server using the GUI.

     (swcopy -v -s /tmp/patch_dir/PH*.depot @ /tmp/patch_dir

       - then "swreg")

swcopy -x layout_version=0.8 -i

   - To swcopy a depot of 10.20 patches onto an 11.00 server

     using the GUI.

swreg -l depot -v /PATH/of/depot

   - To register a depot.

swlist -l fileset -a state

   - Check filesets installed.

swinstall \*

   - To complete the installation of the software.

swverify \*

   - To verify all products and dependency files.


   - On 10.20 servers will remove old patches and cleanup

     the logs.

cleanup -c 1

   - Same for an 11.00 server


Check core dumps

file core

   - What made the stinkin core in the first place

what core

   - To get the libs used

gdb -c core

   - To debug the stinker

gdb ProgramName -c core

   - To debug the stinker

Also see HP doc - KNC071499001


Copy a set of printers from one server to another

On server "A"

  1. Open "sam ->Printers and Plotters->LP Spooler->

     Save/Restore Spooler Configuration"

  2. Go to "Actions"

  3. Click on 'Save Spooler Configuration'

  4. Exit out of SAM

  5. cd /var/sam/lp; tar cvf sam.tar *

  6. Transfer the sam.tar file to system B:/tmp.

On server "B"

  1. mkdir /var/sam/lp  if not created already

  2. cd /var/sam/lp ; mv /tmp/sam.tar /var/sam/lp ; \

     tar cvf sam.tar *

  3. Open "sam ->Printers and Plotters->LP Spooler->

     Save/Restore Spooler Configuration"

  4. Go to "Actions"

  5. Click on 'Restore Spooler Configuration'

  6. Don't forget to restart the scheduler

  7. Exit out of SAM


Convert a "nolargefiles" file system to a "largefiles" file system

fsadm -F hfs (or vxfs) /dev/vg00/lvol1

   - Display statistics

fsadm -F hfs (or vxfs) -o largefiles /dev/vg00/lvol1

   - To change it


Mounting CDs

mount /dev/dsk/c?t?d? /cdrom

exportfs -i -o ro /cdrom

  (On other server)

mount -r hostname_of_server_above:/cdrom /cdrom

PFS mount

Add "/dev/dsk/c?t?d? /SD_CDROM pfs-rrip xlat=unix 0 0" to 

the /etc/pfs_fstab file.

  c?t?d? = The CD device

  SD_CDROM = Mount point

Run "nohup /usr/sbin/pfs_mountd & ; nohup /usr/sbin/pfsd"



Check to be sure pfs started all the correct processes, use the

following command and should see the output below if everything

is correct:

    # ps -ef | grep pfs

    root 17456 17455 0 15:15:24 ttyp1 0:00 pfsd.rpc

    root 17453 17452 0 15:15:18 ttyp1 0:00 pfs_mountd.rpc

    root 17455 16772 0 15:15:23 ttyp1 0:00 pfsd

    root 17452 16772 0 15:15:18 ttyp1 0:00 pfs_mountd

    root 17475 16772 2 15:15:32 ttyp1 0:00 grep pfs

Now mount the cd using the following syntax, where cXtXd0 is the

CD-ROM device file on your machine. Replace the X with the

correct numerical information from your machine.

    pfs_mount /SD-CDROM

      - If the /etc/pfs_fstab was made.

    pfs_mount -o xlat=unix /dev/dsk/c?t?d0 /SD_CDROM

      - To mount the CD in Rock Ridge format.

    pfs_mount -o xlat=unix /dev/rdsk/c?t?d0 /SD_CDROM

      - if not /etc/pfs_fstab was not made.

Only use pfs_umount to dismount the CD-ROM.

    # pfs_umount /SD_CDROM


A reboot will be required if at anytime the umount command is issued

on the pfs mounted CD-ROM instead of using the pfs_umount command.


Kernel stuff

Make a new kernel in SAM but do not "put into place". Then do:

   mv /stand/system /stand/system.prev

   mv /stand/build/system.SAM /stand/system

   /usr/sbin/mk_kernel   (10.20 or 11.00)



Ok... so I don't really know why you would want to do this. I've

always let SAM put the kernel into place and rebooted.

Other Kernel stuff

Boot from desired kernel.

   To boot normally from the previous kernel, type:

   "hpux (;0)/stand/vmunix.prev" and [return].

   To boot in "single user" mode from the previous kernel, type:

   "hpux -is (;0)/stand/vmunix.prev" and [return].

   To boot in "lvm maintenance" mode from the previous kernel,

   type "hpux -lm (;0)/stand/vmunix.prev" and [return].


   To boot from some other kernel, replace the kernel file

   name "vmunix.prev" with the name you gave your alternate



After the system is booted, rename the kernel files so the next

time the system is rebooted normally correct kernel files will be


   The kernel files are :


      - A file containing the kernel itself.


      - A file containing the kernel configuration.


      - A directory containing a few files and directories for

        kernel configuration purposes (for HP-UX 11.0 and up only).

Backup the current default kernel files:

   mv /stand/vmunix /stand/vmunix.bak

   mv /stand/system /stand/system.bak

   mv /stand/dlkm /stand/dlkm.bak (for HP-UX 11.0 and up only)


   Install the previous kernel to be booted to the default file

   name values :

   cp /stand/vmunix.prev /stand/vmunix

   cp /stand/system.prev /stand/system

   cp -R -p /stand/dlkm.vmunix.prev/* /stand/dlkm

     (for HP-UX 11.0 and up only)

Check Kernel parameters

kmtune -l   or   sysdef


Set the stinkin date

date -u mmddhhmmyy

    - month (mm), day (dd), hour (hh), minute (mm), year (yy)


32 or 64 bit supported server

grep `/usr/bin/model` /etc/.supported_bits

   - Check /etc/.supported_bits


   - See what an 11.x server is running


swlist -l bundle | grep Runtime

   - To see what version has been loaded.


.profile thang - put into /.profile and create link

The /.profile thing:

   # custom homedir for root users

   UID=`id | cut -d'=' -f2 | cut -d'(' -f1`

   [ "$UID" = "0" ] && {

       USER=`who am i | cut -d' ' -f1`

       echo "Setting up root environment for $USER"

       [ -L /home/root.$USER ] && {

          export HOME=/home/root.$USER

          . ~/.profile



The link:

   ln -s /home/dburton /home/root.dburton


NTP stuff

Learn about NTP (time): http://www.ntp.org

ntpq -p

   - To check ntp

ntpdate -d 

   - To do other checking

In /etc/ntp.conf:


   # Server(s) we hit on in order to

   # "serve" everybody else in Domainname.com


   # 12/21/2001 - drb


   server   version 3    prefer  # ntp.server.com

   server   version 3            # ntp.server2.com

   peer   version 3            # ntp.server3.com

   peer   version 3            # ntp.server4.com

   peer   version 3            # ntp.server5.com

   peer   version 3            # ntp.server6.com


   # Drift file.  Put this in a directory which the daemon can

   # write to. No symbolic links allowed, either, since the

   # daemon updates the file by creating a temporary in the

   # same directory and then renaming it to the file.


   driftfile /etc/ntp.drift       # path for drift file


   # Note that statsdir requires a trailing slash


   statsdir /var/spool/ntp/

   statistics  loopstats  clockstats  peerstats

   filegen peerstats  file peerstats  type day enable

   filegen loopstats  file loopstats  type day enable

   filegen clockstats file clockstats type day enable


OmniBack stuff

Robotarm stuff:

  uma -ioctl /dev/rac/c?t?d?

  /usr/sbin/mc -p /dev/rac/c?t?d? -s D1 -d S1 -r IDSM

    s = Source (the drive in the library).

    d = Tape source

    r = Print out status

omnidb -version

   - To get version info

omnisv.sh stop

   - Stop OmniBack  (or do /sbin/init.d/omni stop)

omnisv.sh start

   - Start OmniBack (or do /sbin/init.d/omni start)

omnidb -session

   - List all sessions in the database

omnidbutil -info

   - List database space usage

omnidbutil -extendinfo

   - Best info on specific database files

omnidbutil -extend /var/opt/omni/db/cdb -maxsize 2048

   - Add an "fvers.dat" file with it's maximum size of 2 gig.

   - Total of 4 "fvers.dat" files can be made.

omnidbutil -extendfilenames /var/opt/omni/db/cdb -maxsize 2048

   - Add an "fnames.dat" file with it's maximum size of 2 gig.

   - Total of 2 "fnames.dat" files can be made.

To clean up the database a bit:

   1. Delete items from the OmniBack "Monitor" GUI window

   2. Verify that no OmniBack sessions are running

   3. Strip the database using "omnidb -strip"

   4. More cleaning using "omnidbutil -clear"

   5. Do a purge using "omnidbutil -purge -detail -days ?"

      purge  = Purge stuff

      detail = Out of date file versions and names are removed

      days   = Data older then "?" days are removed

Copy the OmniBack database to another filesystem:

   mkdir /new_omni_database_location

   Create the new filesystem and mount it.

   cd /var/opt/omni/db

   find . -xdev -depth -print | cpio -pxdm \


   ln -s /var/opt/omni/db /new_omni_database_location

The syntax for the exclude option in

/etc/opt/omni/datalist/filename is:

      Disk:/path   or  /path

   For Host backup, the syntax used is:

      /path		for Unix (/blahdeblah)

      Drive:\path	for NT (c:\blah\blah.log)

      Volume:\path	for NetWare (sys:\blah\blah.log)

Stuff placed in the /etc/opt/omni/NOTIFICATION file:

   NOTIFICATION "Device Error" 

   { -event "DeviceError" 

   -object "*" 

   -email "backup" 

   NOTIFICATION "Tape Mount Request" 

   { -event "MountRequest" 

   -object "*" 

   -email "backup" 



   { -event "DbSpaceLow" 

   -object "*" 

   -email "backup" 


   NOTIFICATION "Backup Finished" 

   { -event "EndOfSession" 

   -object "*" 

   -email "backup" 



Recreate device files

insf -e

   - Use the "-e" option to re-install device files


Setting/Resetting some system parameters

set_parms hostname

set_parms timezone

set_parms date_time

set_parms root_passwd

set_parms ip_address

set_parms addl_netwrk



swapinfo -a

   - Get info

swapon /

   - Opens entire system to swap.


Find stuff

find / \( -perm -4000 -o -perm -2000 \) -type f -exec ls -ld {} \;

   - Find set-owner-id and set-group-id files.

find / -type f -name core -exec rm {} \;

   - Find core files (not directories).

find . -user user_name | xargs chown new_user_name

   - Find then change files (and possibly the current directory)

     from one user name to a new user ID.

find / -name "*" -exec grep -l -i fsck {} \;

   - Grep "fsck" (or any other named item) in all files and list

     out the path to that file.


Move (copying) /usr

cd /usr

find . -print | cpio -dlmpuvx /usr2

  d = Do directories

  l = Do links

  m = Keep time

  p = Pass along

  u = Copy inconditionaly

  v = verbose

  x = Save device special files



fbackup -0 -f /dev/rmt/c?t?d?BEST -I /tmp/index -v

frecover -f /dev/rmt/c?d?t?BEST -v -I /tmp

  0 = Or "1" - (0 = full, 1 = incremental)

  f = Device file to use

  I = Directory to place index

  v = Verbose

mt -t /dev/rmt/c?t?d?BEST rew

  rew   = Rewind tape.

  offl  = Rewind tape and go off line.

  fsf 5 = Go forward five setmarks on the tape.

  bss 2 = Go backwards two setmarks on the tape.

tar cvf /path/file_name (or device_file_name) /path/target_to_copy

  c = Copy

  x = Restore

  v = Verbose

  t = Index

  r = Add to the end of list

tar cvf - ? | gzip -9> filename.tar.gz

   - To copy files to a tarball and gzip at the same time.


     The question mark (?) is really supposed to be there.


Command line stuff

while (true) ; do command ; sleep 2 ; done

for x in 1 2 3 ; do pvdisplay "/dev/dsk/c3t1d${i}" ; done | more

cp /etc/skel/.[A-z]* /home/new_user


NIS stuff

Using netgroup info:

  for i in `netgrouplist net_group_list ; do something ; done

     - Use an NIS list to do something.

  export -i -o rw=@net_group_list /users

     - A /etc/hosts.equiv entry


     - Add to /etc/passwd to let ONLY the admins in that are on

       this list.


Errors and such

Getting this at bootup:

"Corrupted tracing and logging header

      Internal error (210)"

The fix, run:

  /usr/sbin/nettl stop

  rm /usr/adm/nettl.log00

  /usr/sbin/nettl start


Hitachi/Controler time out

ioscan -fun

   - To get Hitachi controller

pvdisplay /dev/dsk/c?t?d? | grep Timeout

   - To check timeout, should be 60

pvchange -t 60 /dev/dsk/c?t?d?

   - To change timeout value to 60

scsictl -a /dev/rdsk/c?t?d?

   - To check queue depth, should be 2

scsictl -m queue_depth=2 /dev/rdsk/c?t?d?

   - To change it to the value of 2


Get statistics and info

ipcs -mqsabcopt

   - Interprocess communication facilities

vmstat -dnS 30 20

   - Drive info every 30 sec, for 20 times

iostat 30 20

   - Same as vmstat

sar -A -o /tmp/sar_info 30 20

   - Have "sar" collect data every 30 sec, 20 times.

sar -A -f /tmp/sar_info

   - Read the data from a given file

     (normally in /var/adm/sa/sa##).

Sar cron entry:

0 * * * * /usr/lbin/sa/sa1 600 6

   - Samples every 600 sec, 6 times.

cstm -f cstm.cfg

   - Where the cstm.cfg file has the following in it:

         savemap /prod/config/hostname.map 







lssf /dev/dsk/c*

   - Get disk info


Give root a REAL ksh shell at bootup

Change the "/sbin/sh" line for root in the /etc/passwd file to

"/sbin/ksh" then do this:

   cp -p /bin/ksh /sbin/ksh


Check /etc/passwd and /etc/group files

Check the /etc/passwd and /etc/group files

  "pwck"  and  "grpck"


Man Page Stuff

Run "catman" to build the "/usr/share/lib/whatis" file.

Then you can run the "man -k [some command] to see what

manual sections the command is in. For example, if you run

"man -k mkdir", it will show that "mkdir" is in

sections 1 and 2.

To see section 2 you would run "man 2 mkdir".


Unix (Sun) Stuff

Support number: 1-800-USA-4SUN (800-872-4786)

/usr/ccs/bin/what /usr/dt/lib/lubXm.s0

   - Get motif version info.

Free up /var...

   cd /var/sadm ; find . -name save

      - Blow away "save" files

Change openwin logo to our logo...

   Make a tif file and copy to:



   - Patch location

Other worth while commands:

  scsiinfo -p

  boot -r

  sysdef -d



  proctool    - Like Glance on HP

  probe-scsi  - Like "ioscan" on HP

  admintool   - Like SAM on HP


  Check the Rosetta Stone for other commands similar 

  to HP commands.



Nothing yet........


PC Stuff

Ok, so I can NEVER remember this stinkin line so I'm

putting it here. Just because....

pkzip -& -r -P a:\file_name.zip c:\some\directory

   - Zip files to multiple floppies:


Links to other interesting Unix sites

HP ITRC: http://us-support.external.hp.com/
HP Documentation: http://docs.hp.com/index.html
HP Security: ftp://ftp.itrc.hp.com/export/patches
HP Freeware: http://hpux.cs.utah.edu/, or http://hpux.connect.org.uk/, or http://hpux.ee.ualberta.ca/
Build an HP-UX 10.20 or 11.00 bastion host: http://people.hp.se/stevesk/bastion.html

One of the best web links for UNIX class servers, located at: http://www.introcomp.co.uk/unixadmin.html

The Rosetta stone for Unix commands: http://bhami.com/rosetta.html

A big organizational chart of The Birth of Unix: http://perso.wanadoo.fr/levenez/unix/history.html

Learn about NTP (time): http://www.ntp.org


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